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14 African Countries Forced by France to Pay Colonial Tax For the Benefits of Slavery and Colonization
Did you know many African countries continue to pay colonial tax to France since their independence till today!
×Ads By softonicWhen Sékou Touré of× Guinea decided in 1958 to get out of french colonial empire, and opted for the country independence, the french colonial elite in× Paris got so furious, and in a historic act of fury the french administration in Guinea destroyed everything in the country which represented what they called the benefits from french colonization.
Three thousand× French left the country, taking all their property and destroying anything that which could not be moved: schools, nurseries, public administration buildings were crumbled; cars, books, medicine, research institute instruments, tractors were crushed and sabotaged; horses, cows in the farms were killed, and food in warehouses were burned or poisoned.
The purpose of this outrageous act was to send a clear message to all other colonies that the consequences for rejecting× France would be very high.
Slowly fear spread trough the african elite, and none after the× Guinea events ever found the courage to follow the example of× Touré, whose slogan was “We prefer freedom in poverty to opulence in slavery.”
Sylvanus Olympio, the first president of the Republic of Togo, a tiny country in west Africa, found a middle ground solution with the French.
He didn’t want his country to continue to be a french dominion, therefore he refused to sign the colonisation continuation pact De Gaule proposed, but agree to pay an annual debt to× France for the so called benefits× Togo got from french colonization.
It was the only conditions for the× French not to destroy the country before leaving. However, the amount estimated by× France was so big that the reimbursement of the so called “colonial debt” was close to 40% of the country budget in 1963.
×Ads By softonicThe financial situation of the newly independent× Togo was very unstable, so in order to get out the situation,× Olympiodecided to get out the french colonial money FCFA (the franc for french african colonies), and issue the country own currency.
On January 13, 1963, three days after he started printing his country own currency, a squad of illiterate soldiers backed by× Francekilled the first elected president of newly independent Africa. Olympio was killed by an ex French Foreign Legionnaire army sergeant called Etienne Gnassingbe who supposedly received a bounty of $612 from the local× Frenchembassy for the hit man job.
Olympio’s dream was to build an independent and self-sufficient and self-reliant country. But the French didn’t like the idea.
On June 30, 1962, Modiba Keita , the first president of the× Republic of Mali, decided to withdraw from the french colonial currency FCFA which was imposed on 12 newly independent× Africancountries. For the× Malian president, who was leaning more to a socialist economy, it was clear that colonisation continuation pact with× France was a trap, a burden for the country development.
In fact during that turbulent period of× African fighting to liberate themselves from× European colonization, France would repeatedly use many ex Foreign legionnaires to carry out coups against elected presidents:
- - On January 1st, 1966, Jean-Bédel Bokassa, an ex french foreign legionnaire, carried a coup against David Dacko, the first President of the Central African Republic.
- - On January 3, 1966, Maurice Yaméogo, the first President of the Republic of Upper Volta, now called Burkina Faso, was victim of a coup carried by Aboubacar Sangoulé Lamizana, an ex French legionnaire who fought with french troops in Indonesia and Algeria against these countries independence.
- - on 26 October 1972, Mathieu Kérékou who was a security guard to President Hubert Maga, the first President of the Republic of Benin, carried a coup against the president, after he attended French military schools from 1968 to 1970.
In fact, during the last 50 years, a total of 67 coups happened in 26 countries in Africa, 16 of those countries are french ex-colonies, which means 61% of the coups happened in Francophone Africa.
Number of Coups in Africa by country
|Ex French colonies||Other African countries|
|Country||Number of coup||Country||number of coup|
|Cote d’Ivoire||1||Equatorial Guinea||1|
|Congo – RDC||2||Ethiopia||3|
|TOTAL (1 + 2)||45||TOTAL||22|
As these numbers demonstrate, France is quite desperate but active to keep a strong hold on his colonies what ever the cost, no matter what.
In March 2008, former French President Jacques Chirac said:
“Without Africa, France will slide down into the rank of a third [world] power”
Chirac’s predecessor François Mitterand already prophesied in 1957 that:
“Without Africa, France will have no history in the 21st century”
At this very moment I’m writing this article, 14 african countries are obliged by France, trough a colonial pact, to put 85% of their foreign reserve into France central bank under French minister of Finance control. Until now, 2014, Togo and about 13 other african countries still have to pay colonial debt to France. African leaders who refuse are killed or victim of coup. Those who obey are supported and rewarded by France with lavish lifestyle while their people endure extreme poverty, and desperation.
It’s such an evil system even denounced by the European Union, but France is not ready to move from that colonial system which puts about 500 billions dollars from Africa to its treasury year in year out.
We often accuse African leaders of corruption and serving western nations interests instead, but there is a clear explanation for that behavior. They behave so because they are afraid the be killed or victim of a coup. They want a powerful nation to back them in case of aggression or trouble. But, contrary to a friendly nation protection, the western protection is often offered in exchange of these leaders renouncing to serve their own people or nations’ interests.
African leaders would work in the interest of their people if they were not constantly stalked and bullied by colonial countries.
In 1958, scared about the consequence of choosing independence from France, Leopold Sédar Senghor declared: “The choice of the Senegalese people is independence; they want it to take place only in friendship with France, not in dispute.”
From then on France accepted only an “independence on paper” for his colonies, but signed binding “Cooperation Accords”, detailing the nature of their relations with France, in particular ties to France colonial currency (the Franc), France educational system, military and commercial preferences.
Below are the 11 main components of the Colonisation continuation pact since 1950s:
#1. Colonial Debt for the benefits of France colonization
The newly “independent” countries should pay for the infrastructure built by France in the country during colonization.
I still have to find out the complete details about the amounts, the evaluation of the colonial benefits and the terms of payment imposed on the african countries, but we are working on that (help us with info).
#2. Automatic confiscation of national reserves
The African countries should deposit their national monetary reserves into France Central bank.
France has been holding the national reserves of fourteen african countries since 1961: Benin, Burkina Faso, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Mali, Niger, Senegal, Togo, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo-Brazzaville, Equatorial Guinea and Gabon.
“The monetary policy governing such a diverse aggregation of countries is uncomplicated because it is, in fact, operated by the French Treasury, without reference to the central fiscal authorities of any of the WAEMU or the CEMAC. Under the terms of the agreement which set up these banks and the CFA the Central Bank of each African country is obliged to keep at least 65% of its foreign exchange reserves in an “operations account” held at the French Treasury, as well as another 20% to cover financial liabilities.
The CFA central banks also impose a cap on credit extended to each member country equivalent to 20% of that country’s public revenue in the preceding year. Even though the BEAC and the BCEAO have an overdraft facility with the French Treasury, the drawdowns on those overdraft facilities are subject to the consent of the French Treasury. The final say is that of the French Treasury which has invested the foreign reserves of the African countries in its own name on the Paris Bourse.
In short, more than 80% of the foreign reserves of these African countries are deposited in the “operations accounts” controlled by the French Treasury. The two CFA banks are African in name, but have no monetary policies of their own. The countries themselves do not know, nor are they told, how much of the pool of foreign reserves held by the French Treasury belongs to them as a group or individually.
The earnings of the investment of these funds in the French Treasury pool are supposed to be added to the pool but no accounting is given to either the banks or the countries of the details of any such changes. The limited group of high officials in the French Treasury who have knowledge of the amounts in the “operations accounts”, where these funds are invested; whether there is a profit on these investments; are prohibited from disclosing any of this information to the CFA banks or the central banks of the African states .” Wrote Dr. Gary K. Busch
It’s now estimated that France is holding close to 500 billions African countries money in its treasury, and would do anything to fight anyone who want to shed a light on this dark side of the old empire.
The African countries don’t have access to that money.
France allows them to access only 15% of the money in any given year. If they need more than that, they have to borrow the extra money from their own 65% from the French Treasury at commercial rates.
To make things more tragic, France impose a cap on the amount of money the countries could borrow from the reserve. The cap is fixed at 20% of their public revenue in the preceding year. If the countries need to borrow more than 20% of their own money, France has a veto.
Former French President Jacques Chirac recently spoke about the African nations money in France banks. Here is a video of him speaking about the french exploitation scheme. He is speaking in French, but here is a short excerpt transcript: “We have to be honest, and acknowledge that a big part of the money in our banks come precisely from the exploitation of the African continent.”
#3. Right of first refusal on any raw or natural resource discovered in the country
France has the first right to buy any natural resources found in the land of its ex-colonies. It’s only after France would say, “I’m not interested”, that the African countries are allowed to seek other partners.
#4. Priority to French interests and companies in public procurement and public biding
In the award of government contracts, French companies must be considered first, and only after that these countries could look elsewhere. It doesn’t matter if the african countries can obtain better value for money elsewhere.
As consequence, in many of the french ex-colonies, all the majors economical assets of the countries are in the hand of french expatriates. In Côte d’Ivoire, for example, french companies own and control all the major utilities – water, electricity, telephone, transport, ports and major banks. The same in commerce, construction, and agriculture.
In the end, as I’ve written in a previous article, Africans now Live On A Continent Owned by Europeans!
#5. Exclusive right to supply military equipment and Train the country military officers
Through a sophisticated scheme of scholarships, grants, and “Defense Agreements” attached to the Colonial Pact, the africans should send their senior military officers for training in France or French ran-training facilities.
The situation on the continent now is that France has trained hundreds, even thousands of traitors and nourish them. They are dormant when they are not needed, and activated when needed for a coup or any other purpose!
#6. Right for France to pre-deploy troops and intervene military in the country to defend its interests
Under something called “Defence Agreements” attached to the Colonial Pact, France had the legal right to intervene militarily in the African countries, and also to station troops permanently in bases and military facilities in those
countries, run entirely by the French.
French military bases in Africa
History of ISIS beheadings: part of Training Manual of US sponsored Syria "pro-democracy" terroristsSeptember 19th, 2014
The History of ISIS Beheadings: Part of the “Training Manual” of US Sponsored Syria “Pro-Democracy” Terrorists
The recent beheadings of three Westerners, Foley, Sotloff and Haines, at the hands of the Islamic State (ISIS) has sparked a wave of indignation and strong condemnation by Western heads of state.
For anyone aware of what has been truly going on in Syria from the outset of the war in March 2011, there is something unusual in these strong statements, which are now the object of a wave of “humanitarian bombings” under a counter-terrorism mandate directed against the Islamic State.
Lest we forget, from the outset of the war on Syria in March 2011, the US and its allies supported so-called “Freedom fighters” largely composed of the Al Nusrah and ISIS brigades. Trained in Saudi Arabia and Qatar, these pro-democracy terrorists were routinely involved in atrocities including beheadings directed against Syrian civilians.
Double standards? In the course of the last three years, no Western leader made any statements in regards to these atrocities committed by “Muslim extremists”. They passed virtually unnoticed. No concern was expressed by the international community in this regard. With some exceptions, these beheadings were barely the object of media coverage.
Is it because the “freedom fighters” integrated by ISIS and Al Nusrah forces were beheading Syrian civilians rather than Westerners. Was it because the victims of these atrocities were opposed to the bloody “pro-democracy revolution” sponsored by US-NATO against the government of Bashar Al Assad?
Why are Western leaders only appalled now? Is it because now Westerners rather than Syrians are being decapitated?
These recent beheadings of American and British nationals, whether authentic or not, are obviously exploited to pave the way for a military intervention in Syria. This is a basic propaganda technique used time and time again to gather support for war and the mainstream media is there to convey this propaganda.
The mainstream media’s role is not to inform people but to appeal to their emotions and manipulate them into approving what they would otherwise refuse.
Westerners don’t want to go to war in the Middle East again? Show them one of their fellow countrymen getting his head cut off by a “Muslim” and they will change their mind. And you don’t even need to show anything, just say that people in high office have seen the horrific act and have their media mouthpieces repeat what they have said. It works every time.
This tactic can either be considered as an appeal to fear and/or an appeal to emotions:
An appeal to fear (also called argumentum ad metum or argumentum in terrorem) is a fallacy in which a person attempts to create support for an idea by using deception and propaganda in attempts to increase fear and prejudice toward a competitor. The appeal to fear is common in marketing and politics. (Wikipedia)
If this technique is used rather than valid arguments, it’s in part because it always works like a charm and this is what the mainstream media is for, but also because the “valid arguments” which could be used to intervene could only be lies and easily refuted, as this article will attempt to demonstrate.
Several independent media have questioned the authenticity of the beheading videos and some experts have clearly qualified them as “fake”, at least in the cases involving journalists Foley and Sotloff. The true identity of both men has also been questioned, especially Sotloff’s, who has known ties to the Israeli secret service (Mossad), and has been allegedly photographed behind a machine gun belonging to the Syrian rebel fighters.
As “Operation Mocking Bird” has documented, journalism is the best cover for an intelligence operative. Several former CIA officers have confirmed that it is used to plant stories that are picked up by news outlets as facts when they actually are propaganda pieces (see CIA Manipulation: The Painful Truths Told by Phil Agee and John Stockwell about false reports generated by the CIA). The DC based “producer” of the terror videos, SITE, with its close links to the Pentagon and the FBI, is also suspicious and tends to point to a major propaganda stunt originating in the US.
For the purpose of this article we will however examine the situation and the reaction of Western leaders from the point of view that these beheadings actually took place and that the videos are authentic.
Beheadings from Western-backed rebels: “business as usual”
Atrocities committed in Syria were reported from the outset of the unrest in 2011 by independent media. It took some time for the mainstream media to mention those atrocities, but since 2012, many reports have been published by the mainstream press, in spite of which the prevailing discourse on Syria remained essentially the same: the “tyrannical Assad regime” was brutally repressing a “pro-democracy rebellion” and the West was still expressing its unyielding support for the “pro-democracy fighters”.
The only difference was that at some point the U.S. authorities had to admit the presence of terrorist groups among the “moderate rebels” even though these so-called moderate rebels were never clearly identified. Even former CIA operative Bob Baer said in a CNN interview following Sotloff’s alleged beheading that “there are no moderate rebels in Syria”.
Here are only a few excerpts of various mainstream and independent articles and videos mentioning beheadings by rebels in Syria in 2012 and 2013, including reports from the UN and Human Rights Watch, which are usually used to support “humanitarian interventions” abroad.
The video you can find here was published on July 3, 2013 and shows a Christian priest and another Christian being decapitated. The host of the web site explains:
WARNING GRAPHIC: A priest and another Christian were beheaded before a cheering crowd by Syrian insurgents who say they aided and abetted the enemy, President Bashar Assad’s military, foreign media reported. An undated video that made the Internet rounds on Wednesday showed two unnamed men with tied hands surrounded by a cheering crowd of dozens, just moments before their heads were cut off with a small knife, Syria Report said. The attackers in the video then lifted the head for show, and placed it back on the body. The incident took place in the countryside of Idlib, the media report said. (RAW: Syrian Rebels Behead Christians, Military.com, July 3, 2013)
This Daily Mail article from December 2012 describes how another Christian was beheaded and his body fed to dogs in a town close to the Turkish border, where most rebel fighters are said to transit into Syrian territory:
Christian Andrei Arbashe, 38, was kidnapped and beheaded by rebel fighters in northern town of Ras Al-Ayn on the Turkish border.
News came as pro-government forces celebrated their victory against rebels near Aleppo Airport.
Syrian rebels beheaded a Christian man and fed his body to dogs, according to a nun who says the West is ignoring atrocities committed by Islamic extremists.
The nun said taxi driver Andrei Arbashe, 38, was kidnapped after his brother was heard complaining that fighters against the ruling regime behaved like bandits.
She said his headless corpse was found by the side of the road, surrounded by hungry dogs. He had recently married and was soon to be a father…
Sister Agnes-Mariam de la Croix said: ‘His only crime was his brother criticised the rebels, accused them of acting like bandits, which is what they are.’
There have been a growing number of accounts of atrocities carried out by rogue elements of the Syrian Free Army, which opposes dictator Bashar al-Assad and is recognised by Britain and the West as the legitimate leadership.
‘The free and democratic world is supporting extremists,’ Sister Agnes-Miriam said from her sanctuary in Lebanon. ‘They want to impose Sharia Law and create an Islamic state in Syria. (Nick Fagge, Syria rebels ‘beheaded a Christian and fed him to the dogs’ as fears grow over Islamist atrocities, Daily Mail, December 31, 2012)
The term “rogue elements” is used to create distance from and excuse the FSA, but the frequency of beheadings and other atrocities committed by rebel fighters prove the contrary.
The German magazine Der Spiegel published in March 2012 a story featuring an “executioner” part of a “burial brigade”, some sort of death squad “responsible for the arbitrary execution of 350-400 people” who expressed “their opposition to the rule of terror of the Free Syrian Army (FSA)”:
This single “burial brigade”, according to the executioner’s testimony, was responsible for the arbitrary execution of 350-400 people including “prisoners” and “traitors”. The “traitors” are Sunni civilians within the occupied urban and rural areas, who express their opposition to the rule of terror of the Free Syrian Army (FSA):
“Since last summer, we have executed slightly fewer than 150 men, which represents about 20 percent of our prisoners,” says Abu Rami. … But the executioners of Homs have been busier with traitors within their own ranks than with prisoners of war. “If we catch a Sunni spying, or if a citizen betrays the revolution, we make it quick,” says the fighter.According to Abu Rami, Hussein’s burial brigade has put between 200 and 250 traitors to death since the beginning of the uprising.” (Ulrike Putz, Syria: Atrocities Committed by US-NATO Sponsored “Opposition”. Executioner for Syria’s “Rebels” Tells His Story, Der Spiegel Online, March 30, 2012)
In this independent report from Human rights investigations, a child is shown using a machete to cut a man’s head off and mentions the involvement of the Free Syrian Army (if you wish to see the video, click on the link to the original article):
Extensive and horrifying footage of an incident in which two men are executed by beheading in which a child participates now comes from two different sources.
Footage posted to YouTube by Voice of America Arabic (Radio Sawa) anchor and journalist Zaid Benjamin, shows a child hacking a prisoner’s neck with a machete.
In fact, different footage of the same incident was previously shown on 26 November on Sama TV (A Syrian channel) as part of a segment which demonstrated the difference between Turkish propaganda on the Syrian conflict and the actual reality.
The footage shown by Sama was edited to remove the most graphic content, but shows more of the background to the incident. The Free Syrian Army (FSA) brigade involved is apparently the Khalid ibn al-Waleed brigade. (Syrian rebels use a child to behead a prisoner, Human rights investigations, December 10, 2012)
A United Nations report from June 2013 describes what appears to be the same scene:
The report drew attention to video footage, submitted by the Russian mission to the UN in Geneva, showing the decapitation of two regime soldiers, with a child responsible for one beheading. “Following investigation, it is believed that the video is authentic and the men were soldiers, killed as depicted,” the UN panel said. (Flavia Krause-Jackson and Sangwon Yoon, Beheadings by Syrian Rebels Add to Atrocities, UN Says, Bloomberg, June 4, 2013)
Even the very conservative Economist reported in October 2013 about an “assault by rebels, led by al-Qaeda affiliates” against Alawites considered to be “heretics” by the jihadists.
This was day one of an assault by rebels, led by al-Qaeda affiliates, on Syria’s northwestern coastal region. Early in the morning bands of opposition fighters overran a government checkpoint and pushed into an area of ten villages, carrying out killings that Human Rights Watch, a New York-based pressure group, says may amount to crimes against humanity. Local residents reported indiscriminate gunfire and murder.
Home to Syrians of all creeds, the area is also the heartland of the Alawites, the esoteric Shia offshoot to which the ruling Assad family belongs and whose adherents the jihadists consider heretics. Over the course of the operation, Human Rights Watch says the fighters killed 190 civilians. Residents and hospital staff in Latakia, the nearest city, spoke of burned bodies, beheaded corpses and graves being dug in backyards. Two hundred people from the area remain hostage. (S.B.,The war in Syria – Rebel atrocities, The Economist, October 13, 2013)
The BBC also commented on the same Human Rights Watch report:
The report names 190 civilians killed by the rebels, including at least 57 women, 18 children and 14 elderly men. The total number of dead is likely higher because many residents remained missing and bodies were buried in mass graves, it adds…
A doctor at a hospital in Latakia said several of the bodies had multiple gunshot wounds, stab wounds or had been decapitated. Some were burnt or had their feet bound, he added…
HRW says Islamist rebel groups – which include foreign fighters – are financed by individuals in Kuwait and the Gulf. It calls on the UN to impose an arms embargo on all groups credibly accused of war crimes. (Syria rebels executed civilians, says Human Rights Watch, BBC, October 11, 2013)
Like every Western mainstream news outlet, the BBC has been biased on the Syrian issue and has defended the Western-backed Free Syrian Army right from the beginning. Confronted with this evidence of atrocities by the ones they kept promoting as being pro-democracy freedom fighters, the public broadcaster attempted to whitewash the Free Syrian Army with a somewhat absurd and contradictory statement:
HRW says about 20 opposition groups took part in the offensive and that five were involved in the attacks on civilians – the al-Nusra Front, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIS), Jaysh al-Muhajirin wa al-Ansar, Ahrar al-Sham and Suqour al-Izz
None are affiliated to the Western-backed Supreme Military Council of the Free Syrian Army, though SMC chief Gen Salim Idris did say at the time that fighters under his command participated in the assault… (Ibid.)
The phrasing is very insidious since it leads the reader to believe that if the groups which committed the assault are not linked to the Western-backed FSA, the latter did not participate in the assault. But the FSA DID participate in the assault since “fighters under [the FSA General’s] command participated in the assault.”
The US was Supporting ISIS via the Free Syria Army
Salim Idriss, who was replaced in February 2014 by Col Abd al-Ilah al-Bashir, even declared in November 2013, one month after the publication of the HRW report, that his relationship with ISIL (ISIS) was “good”:
“My relationship with the brothers in ISIL is good… I communicate almost daily with brothers in ISIL to settle these disputes and issues. The issues are being overinflated by the media.”(FSA General Declares Support for ISIS & Al-Nusra)
He also said in a previous interview in January 2013 that the terrorist group Jabhat al-Nusra constituted “about 10% of the FSA”, a statement which also contradicts the BBC analysis. He said he didn’t know why it is listed as a terrorist organization because all he saw was “good morals and brave and heroic fighting against the regime” and added: “They did not exhibit any abnormal behavior which is different from that of the FSA.” (Ibid.)
Should we conclude that “normal behavior” for the Western-backed FSA and ISIS includes beheading people?
The Human Rights Watch report from October 2013 explicitly states that the murders committed in “Operation to Save the Coast” in the Syrian region of Latakia were committed by 20 groups including ISIS, Jabhat al-Nusra AND the FSA. It also clearly indicates that individuals from Saudi Arabia and Qatar, know to be Western allies, funded and planned the “Operation to Save the Coast” and that the foreign fighters entering Latakia at the time almost did so entirely from Turkey, a NATO member.
One “Western diplomat raised the concern to Human Rights Watch that in general the number of nationals from European countries going into Syria to fight was ‘greater than the number of those who went from Europe to fight in Afghanistan or Iraq.’”
The testimony from a doctor working in the National Hospital in Latakia said “they had received 205 corpses of civilians killed during the August 4-August 18 operation” with “decapitation observed in most bodies.”
So if we summarize, over 200 civilians were killed in this single operation, most of them were decapitated, most probably by Western-backed foreign fighters transiting through a NATO member state.
Where was the disgust, the horror and the outrage from Western leaders back then?
It is quite obvious that the decapitations of hundreds of Syrian civilians by Western-backed forces would completely destroy the propaganda and prove that Assad was telling the truth when he said he was fighting a foreign terrorist invasion. That’s why this report was not much talked about and the narrative stayed the same in the Western media.
But all other subsequent attempts to justify a military invasion in Syria failed and now we are faced with the most absurd scenario: the West pretends it must intervene against its own deadly creation: ISIS
The recent ISIS beheadings are just another pretext to intervene militarily in Syria. The hundreds of decapitations of Syrian nationals which have been committed by the Western proxy soldiers for years prove that this is just another PSYOP to gather support for another war in the Middle East.
Below you will find longer excerpts of the Human Rights Watch report mentioned above.
“You Can Still See Their Blood” – Executions, Unlawful Killings, and Hostage Taking by Opposition Forces in Latakia Countryside Human Rights Watch, October 2013
Fourteen residents and first responders told Human Rights Watch that they witnessed executions or saw bodies that bore signs of execution… including in some cases corpses that were bound, and bodies that had been decapitated. A doctor working in the National Hospital in Latakia who was receiving the dead and wounded from Latakia countryside told Human Rights Watch that they had received 205 corpses of civilians killed during the August 4-August 18 operation. The doctor showed Human Rights Watch a medical report the hospital prepared on August 26 stating that the, “[c ]ause of death in several of them [the bodies] was multiple gunshot wounds all over the bodies, in addition to stab wounds made with a sharp instrument, given the decapitation observed in most bodies…
IV. Opposition Groups Involved in August 4 Attacks
The operation launched by opposition fighters in Latakia countryside on August 4, termed the “Campaign of the Descendants of Aisha the Mother of Believers,” the “Barouda Offensive,” and the “Operation to Liberate the Coast,” or the “Operation to Save the Coast” (herein after Operation to Liberate the Coast) was acoordinated preplanned assault by armed opposition groups on Syrian military positions and unguarded Alawite villages that lasted from August 4-August 18. On the first day of the operation, opposition fighters killed civilians on numerous occasions. In many cases evidence gathered by Human Rights Watch suggests they killed them knowing them to be civilian and that they were playing no part in combat…
Of the 20 or more groups that were involved in the “Operation to Liberate the Coast” … five groups were among the principle planners, fundraisers, and executors of the offensive… These groups are:
-Islamic State of Iraq and Sham
-Jaish al-Muhajireen wal-Ansar
The Islamic State of Iraq and Sham
In 2006, the name of al-Qaeda in Iraq was changed to the Islamic State of Iraq. This group is now operating in Syria under the name the Islamic State of Iraq and Sham (ISIS). Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi is the group’s leader and he has sworn loyalty to the al-Qaeda leader, Ayman al-Zawahiri. According to the opposition activist who spoke to Human Rights Watch, Abu Ayman commanded the group during the August Latakia offensive.Abu Jaafar from ISIS has also been identified as the first deputy commander of the operation.
Multiple opposition sources identify ISIS as one of the leading groups involved in the “Operation to Liberate the Coast.”Videos posted by opposition groups on YouTube also show ISIS’s involvement in the offensive on August 4.On August 6 the opposition activist that spoke to Human Rights Watch also said that the ISIS played a key role in abducting and holding civilian hostages from the villages. According to an opposition military leader from Latakia working on the hostage exchange, as of early September ISIS was holding 110 to 120 hostages.
V. Other Groups Involved in the “Operation to Liberate the Coast”
Free Syrian Army under Salim Idriss’s Command
Notably, several statements from Salim Idriss, the Chief of Staff of the Supreme Military Council of the Free Syrian Army, reflect that fighters under his command participated in the operation. In a video posted on August 11 and apparently filmed in Latakia countryside, Idriss states:
I am here [in Latakia countryside] today to get a picture on the true achievements and the big successes that our fellow revolutionaries have achieved in the coastal campaign and to respond to the charges that claim incorrectly that we will end our operations here on the coastal frontlines. We are here today to assure everyone that our chief of staff is cooperating fully with the coastal military front command regarding their military activities. We are not going to withdraw as was falsely claimed but on the contrary, we are cooperating to a great extent in this operation.
… [T]he participation of Idriss and fighters under his command in the “Operation to Liberate the Coast” appears clear ….
VI. Financial Support to Operation
Largely based on information posted by individuals in the groups who participated in the “Operation to Liberate the Coast” and their supporters on social media sites, Human Rights Watch has identified several individuals, principally from Gulf countries, who actively fundraised for the operation and for support to the groups involved. There is no evidence that the fundraisers and financiers knew at the time that they gave their support about the abuses that would or were taking place in Latakia countryside. However future support to the five groups principally involved in planning, fundraising, and executing the attack on the villages may make these individuals complicit in war crimes or crimes against humanity if these groups continue to commit abuses. …
On August 3 al-Suwan tweeted that he supports the Islamic brigades in Latakia countryside.  On August 5 and 7, al-Suwan tweeted a thank you to donors from Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates and Qatar …
VII. Access of Foreign Fighters to Syria
According to Syrian security officials, media reports, western diplomats, and direct observations by journalists and humanitarian workers who visited the area in the past, many foreign fighters operating in northern Syria gain access to Syria via Turkey, from which they also smuggle their weapons, obtain money and other supplies, and sometimes retreat to for medical treatment. 
According to a humanitarian worker in Turkey, based on his observations, foreign fighters entering Latakia governorate do so almost entirely from Turkey, even flying into Hatay airport where they are picked up by other foreign fighters and facilitators.
A western diplomat told Human Rights Watch that diplomats from several EU member state missions in Ankara are very concerned about the transiting of nationals from European and other countries through Turkey to Syria.Another Western diplomat raised the concern to Human Rights Watch that in general the number of nationals from European countries going into Syria to fight was “greater than the number of those who went from Europe to fight in Afghanistan or Iraq.” (emphasis added)
Over 300 survivors and descendants of survivors of the victims of Nazi genocide condemn Israel's assault on GazaAugust 23rd, 2014
313 Jewish survivors and descendants of survivors and victims of the Nazi genocide have signed this letter written in response to Elie Wiesel’s manipulation of the Nazi Genocide to attempt to justify the attacks on Gaza.
As Jewish survivors and descendants of survivors and victims of the Nazi genocide we unequivocally condemn the massacre of Palestinians in Gaza and the ongoing occupation and colonization of historic Palestine. We further condemn the United States for providing Israel with the funding to carry out the attack, and Western states more generally for using their diplomatic muscle to protect Israel from condemnation. Genocide begins with the silence of the world.
We are alarmed by the extreme, racist dehumanization of Palestinians in Israeli society, which has reached a fever-pitch. In Israel, politicians and pundits in The Times of Israel and The Jerusalem Post have called openly for genocide of Palestinians and right-wing Israelis are adopting Neo-Nazi insignia.
Furthermore, we are disgusted and outraged by Elie Wiesel’s abuse of our history in these pages to promote blatant falsehoods used to justify the unjustifiable: Israel’s wholesale effort to destroy Gaza and the murder of nearly 2,000 Palestinians, including many hundreds of children. Nothing can justify bombing UN shelters, homes, hospitals and universities. Nothing can justify depriving people of electricity and water.
We must raise our collective voices and use our collective power to bring about an end to all forms of racism, including the ongoing genocide of Palestinian people. We call for an immediate end to the siege against and blockade of Gaza. We call for the full economic, cultural and academic boycott of Israel. “Never again” must mean NEVER AGAIN FOR ANYONE!
- Hajo Meyer, survivor of Auschwitz, The Netherlands.
- Henri Wajnblum, survivor and son of a victim of Auschwitz from Lodz, Poland. Lives in Belgium.
- Renate Bridenthal, child refugee from Hitler, granddaughter of Auschwitz victim, United States.
- Marianka Ehrlich Ross, survivor of Nazi ethnic cleansing in Vienna, Austria. Now lives in United States.
- Irena Klepfisz, child survivor from the Warsaw Ghetto, Poland. Now lives in United States.
- Hedy Epstein, her parents & other family members were deported to Camp de Gurs & subsequently all perished in Auschwitz. Now lives in United States.
- Lillian Rosengarten, survivor of the Nazi Holocaust, United States.
- Suzanne Weiss, survived in hiding in France, and daughter of a mother who was murdered in Auschwitz. Now lives in Canada.
- H. Richard Leuchtag, survivor, United States.
- Ervin Somogyi, survivor and son of survivors, United States.
- Ilse Hadda, survivor on Kindertransport to England. Now lives in United States.
- Jacques Glaser, survivor, France.
- Norbert Hirschhorn, refugee of Nazi genocide and grandson of three grandparents who died in the Shoah, London.
- Eva Naylor, surivor, New Zealand.
- Suzanne Ross, child refugee from Nazi occupation in Belgium, two thirds of family perished in the Lodz Ghetto, in Auschwitz, and other Camps, United States.
- Bernard Swierszcz, Polish survivor, lost relatives in Majdanek concentration camp. Now lives in the United States.
- Joseph Klinkov, hidden child in Poland, still lives in Poland.
- Nicole Milner, survivor from Belgium. Now lives in United States.
- Hedi Saraf, child survivor and daughter of survivor of Dachau, United States.
- Michael Rice, child survivor, son and grandson of survivor, aunt and cousin murderd, ALL 14 remaining Jewish children in my Dutch boarding school were murdered in concentration camps, United States.
- Barbara Roose, survivor from Germany, half-sister killed in Auschwitz, United States.
- Sonia Herzbrun, survivor of Nazi genocide, France.
- Ivan Huber, survivor with my parents, but 3 of 4 grandparents murdered, United States.
- Altman Janina, survivor of Janowski concentration camp, Lvov. Lives in Israel.
- Leibu Strul Zalman, survivor from Vaslui Romania. Lives in Jerusalem, Palestine.
- Miriam Almeleh, survivor, United States.
- George Bartenieff, child survivor from Germany and son of survivors, United States.
- Margarete Liebstaedter, survivor, hidden by Christian people in Holland. Lives in Belgium.
- Edith Bell, survivor of Westerbork, Theresienstadt, Auschwitz and Kurzbach. Lives in United States.
- Janine Euvrard, survivor, France.
- Harry Halbreich, survivor, German.
- Ruth Kupferschmidt, survivor, spent five years hiding, The Netherlands.
- Annette Herskovits, PhD, hidden child and daughter of victims, United States.
- Felicia & Moshe Langer, survivors from Germany, Moshe survived 5 concentration camps, family members were exterminated. Live in Germany.
- Adam Policzer, hidden child from Hungary. Now lives in Canada.
- Juliane Biro, survivor via the Kindertransport to England, daughter of survivors, niece of victims, United States.
- Edith Rubinstein, child refugee, granddaughter of 3 victims, many other family members were victims, Belgium.
- Jacques Bude, survivor, mother and father murdered in Auschwitz, Belgium.
- Nicole Kahn, survivor, France.
Children of survivors:
- Liliana Kaczerginski, daughter of Vilna ghetto resistance fighter and granddaughter of murdered in Ponary woods, Lithuania. Now lives in France.
- Jean-Claude Meyer, son of Marcel, shot as a hostage by the Nazis, whose sister and parents died in Auschwitz. Now lives in France.
- Chava Finkler, daughter of survivor of Starachovice labour camp, Poland. Now lives in Canada.
- Micah Bazant, child of a survivor of the Nazi genocide, United States.
- Sylvia Schwarz, daughter and granddaughter of survivors and granddaughter of victims of the Nazi genocide, United States.
- Margot Goldstein, daughter and granddaughter of survivors of the Nazi genocide, United States.
- Ellen Schwarz Wasfi, daughter of survivors from Vienna, Austria. Now lives in United States.
- Lisa Kosowski, daughter of survivor and granddaughter of Auschwitz victims, United States.
- Daniel Strum, son of a refugee from Vienna, who, with his parents were forced to flee in 1939, his maternal grand-parents were lost, United States.
- Bruce Ballin, son of survivors, some relatives of parents died in camps, one relative beheaded for being in the Baum Resistance Group, United States.
- Rachel Duell, daughter of survivors from Germany and Poland, United States.
- Tom Mayer, son of survivor and grandson of victims, United States.
- Alex Nissen, daughter of survivors who escaped but lost family in the Holocaust, United States.
- Mark Aleshnick, son of survivor who lost most of her family in Nazi genocide, United States.
- Prof. Haim Bresheeth, son of two survivors of Auschwitz and Bergen Belsen, London.
- Todd Michael Edelman, son and grandson of survivors and great-grandson of victims of the Nazi genocide in Hungary, Romania and Slovakia, United States.
- Tim Naylor, son of survivor, New Zealand.
- Victor Nepomnyashchy, son and grandson of survivors and grandson and relative of many victims, United States.
- Tanya Ury, daughter of parents who fled Nazi Germany, granddaughter, great granddaugher and niece of survivors and those who died in concentration camps, Germany.
- Rachel Giora, daughter of Polish Jews who fled Poland, Israel.
- Jane Hirschmann, daughter of survivors, United States.
- Jenny Heinz, daughter of survivor, United States.
- Jaap Hamburger, son of survivors and grandchild of 4 grandparents murdered in Auschwitz, The Netherlands.
- Elsa Auerbach, daughter of Jewish refugees from Nazi Germany, United States.
- Julian Clegg, son and grandson of Austrian refugees, relative of Austrian and Hungarian concentration camp victims, Taiwan.
- David Mizner, son of a survivor, relative of people who died in the Holocaust, United States.
- Jeffrey J. Westcott, son and grandson of Holocaust survivors from Germany, United States.
- Susan K. Jacoby, daughter of parents who were refugees from Nazi Germany, granddaughter of survivor of Buchenwald, United States.
- Audrey Bomse, daughter of a survivor of Nazi ethnic cleansing in Vienna, lives in United States.
- Daniel Gottschalk, son and grandson of refugees from the Holocaust, relative to various family members who died in the Holocaust, United States.
- Barbara Grossman, daughter of survivors, granddaughter of Holocaust victims, United States.
- Abraham Weizfeld PhD, son of survivorswho escaped Warsaw (Jewish Bundist) and Lublin ghettos, Canada.
- David Rohrlich, son of refugees from Vienna, grandson of victim, United States.
- Walter Ballin, son of holocaust survivors, United States.
- Fritzi Ross, daughter of survivor, granddaughter of Dachau survivor Hugo Rosenbaum, great-granddaughter and great-niece of victims, United States.
- Reuben Roth, son of survivors who fled from Poland in 1939, Canada.
- Tony Iltis, father fled from Czechoslovakia and grandmother murdered in Auschwitz, Australia.
- Anne Hudes, daughter and granddaughter of survivors from Vienna, Austria, great-granddaughter of victims who perished in Auschwitz, United States.
- Mateo Nube, son of survivor from Berlin, Germany. Lives in United States.
- John Mifsud, son of survivors from Malta, United States.
- Mike Okrent, son of two holocaust / concentration camp survivors, United States.
- Susan Bailey, daughter of survivor and niece of victims, UK.
- Brenda Lewis, child of Kindertransport survivor, parent’s family died in Auschwitz and Terezin. Lives in Canada.
- Patricia Rincon-Mautner, daughter of survivor and granddaughter of survivor, Colombia.
- Barak Michèle, daughter and grand-daughter of a survivor, many members of family were killed in Auschwitz or Bessarabia. Lives in Germany.
- Jessica Blatt, daughter of child refugee survivor, both grandparents’ entire families killed in Poland. Lives in United States
- Maia Ettinger, daughter & granddaughter of survivors, United States.
- Ammiel Alcalay, child of survivors from then Yugoslavia. Lives in United States.
- Julie Deborah Kosowski, daughter of hidden child survivor, grandparents did not return from Auschwitz, United States.
- Julia Shpirt, daughter of survivor, United States.
- Ruben Rosenberg Colorni, grandson and son of survivors, The Netherlands.
- Victor Ginsburgh, son of survivors, Belgium.
- Arianne Sved, daughter of a survivor and granddaughter of victim, Spain.
- Rolf Verleger, son of survivors, father survived Auschwitz, mother survived deportation from Berlin to Estonia, other family did not survive. Lives in Germany.
- Euvrard Janine, daughter of survivors, France.
- H. Fleishon, daughter of survivors, United States.
- Barbara Meyer, daughter of survivor in Polish concentration camps. Lives in Italy.
- Susan Heuman, child of survivors and granddaughter of two grandparents murdered in a forest in Minsk. Lives in United States.
- Rami Heled, son of survivors, all grandparents and family killed by the Germans in Treblinka, Oswiecim and Russia. Lives in Israel.
- Eitan Altman, son of survivor, France.
- Jorge Sved, son of survivor and grandson of victim, United Kingdom
- Maria Kruczkowska, daughter of Lea Horowicz who survived the holocaust in Poland. Lives in Poland.
- Sarah Lanzman, daughter of survivor of Auschwitz, United States.
- Cheryl W, daughter, granddaughter and nieces of survivors, grandfather was a member of the Dutch Underground (Eindhoven). Lives in Australia.
- Chris Holmquist, son of survivor, UK.
- Beverly Stuart, daughter and granddaughter of survivors from Romania and Poland. Lives in United States.
- Peter Truskier, son and grandson of survivors, United States.
- Karen Bermann, daughter of a child refugee from Vienna. Lives in United States.
- Rebecca Weston, daughter and granddaughter of survivor, Spain.
- Prof. Yosefa Loshitzky, daughter of Holocaust survivors, London, UK.
- Marion Geller, daughter and granddaughter of those who escaped, great-granddaughter and relative of many who died in the camps, UK.
- Susan Slyomovics, daughter and granddaughter of survivors of Auschwitz, Plaszow, Markleeberg and Ghetto Mateszalka, United States.
- Helga Fischer Mankovitz, daughter, niece and cousin of refugees who fled from Austria, niece of victim who perished, Canada.
- Michael Wischnia, son of survivors and relative of many who perished, United States.
- Arthur Graaff, son of decorated Dutch resistance member and nazi victim, The Netherlands.
- Yael Kahn, daughter of survivors who escaped Nazi Germany, many relatives that perished, UK.
- Pierre Stambul, son of French resistance fighters, father deported to Buchenwalk, grandparents disapeared in Bessarabia, France.
- Georges Gumpel, son of a deportee who died at Melk, Austria (subcamp of Mauthausen), France.
- Emma Kronberg, daughter of survivor Buchenwald, United States.
- Hannah Schwarzschild, daughter of a refugee who escaped Nazi Germany after experiencing Kristallnacht, United States.
- Rubin Kantorovich, son of a survivor, Canada.
- Daniele Armaleo, son of German refugee, grandparents perished in Theresienstadt, United States.
- Aminda Stern Baird, daughter of survivor, United States.
- Ana Policzer, daughter of hidden child, granddaughter of victim, niece/grandniece of four victims and two survivors, Canada.
- Sara Castaldo, daughter of survivors, United States.
- Pablo Policzer, son of a survivor, Canada.
- Gail Nestel, daughter of survivors who lost brothers, sisters, parents and cousins, Canada.
- Elizabeth Heineman, daughter and niece of unaccompanied child refugees, granddaughter of survivors, great-granddaughter and grand-niece of victims, United States.
- Lainie Magidsohn, daughter of child survivor and numerous other relatives from Czestochowa, Poland. Lives in Canada.
- Doris Gelbman, daughter and granddaughter of survivors, granddaughter and niece of many who perished, United States.
- Erna Lund, daughter of survivor, Norway.
- Rayah Feldman, daughter of refugees, granddaughter and niece of victims and survivors, UK.
- Hadas Rivera-Weiss, daughter of survivors from Hungary, mother Ruchel Weiss née Abramovich and father Shaya Weiss, United States.
- Pedro Tabensky, son of survivor of the Budapest Ghetto, South Africa.
- Allan Kolski Horwitz, son of a survivor; descendant of many, many victims, South Africa.
- Monique Mojica, child of survivor, relative to many victims murdered in Auschwitz. Canada.
- Mike Brecher, son of a Kindertransport survivor and grandson of two who did not survive. UK.
Grandchildren of survivors
- Raphael Cohen, grandson of Jewish survivors of the Nazi genocide, United States.
- Emma Rubin, granddaughter of a survivor of the Nazi genocide, United States.
- Alex Safron, grandson of a survivor of the Nazi genocide, United States.
- Danielle Feris, grandchild of a Polish grandmother whose whole family died in the Nazi Holocaust, United States.
- Jesse Strauss, grandson of Polish survivors of the Nazi genocide, United States.
- Anna Baltzer, granddaughter of survivors whose family members perished in Auschwitz (others were members of the Belgian Resistance), United States.
- Abigail Harms, granddaughter of Holocaust survivor from Austria, Now lives in United States.
- Tessa Strauss, granddaughter of Polish Jewish survivors of the Nazi genocide, United States.
- Caroline Picker, granddaughter of survivors of the Nazi genocide, United States.
- Amalle Dublon, grandchild and great-grandchild of survivors of the Nazi holocaust, United States.
- Antonie Kaufmann Churg, 3rd cousin of Ann Frank and grand-daughter of NON-survivors, United States.
- Aliza Shvarts, granddaughter of survivors, United States.
- Linda Mamoun, granddaughter of survivors, United States.
- Abby Okrent, granddaughter of survivors of the Auschwitz, Dachau, Stuttgart, and the Lodz Ghetto, United States.
- Ted Auerbach, grandson of survivor whose whole family died in the Holocaust, United States.
- Beth Bruch, grandchild of German Jews who fled to US and great-grandchild of Nazi holocaust survivor, United States.
- Bob Wilson, grandson of a survivor, United States.
- Katharine Wallerstein, granddaughter of survivors and relative of many who perished, United States.
- Sylvia Finzi, granddaughter and niece of Holocaust victims murdered in Auschwitz, London and Berlin. Now lives in London.
- Esteban Schmelz, grandson of KZ-Theresienstadt victim, Mexico City.
- Françoise Basch, grand daughter of Victor and Ilona Basch murdered by the Gestapo and the French Milice, France.
- Gabriel Alkon, grandson of Holocaust survivors, Untied States.
- Nirit Ben-Ari, grandchild of Polish grandparents from both sides whose entire family was killed in the Nazi Holocaust, United States.
- Heike Schotten, granddaughter of refugees from Nazi Germany who escaped the genocide, United States.
- Ike af Carlstèn, grandson of survivor, Norway.
- Elias Lazarus, grandson of Holocaust refugees from Dresden, United States and Australia.
- Laura Mandelberg, granddaughter of Holocaust survivors, United States.
- Josh Ruebner, grandson of Nazi Holocaust survivors, United States.
- Shirley Feldman, granddaughter of survivors, United States.
- Nuno Cesar Ferreira, grandson of survivor, Brazil.
- Andrea Land, granddaugher of survivors who fled programs in Poland, all European relatives died in German and Polish concentration camps, United States.
- Sarah Goldman, granddaughter of survivors of the Nazi genocide, United States.
- Baruch Wolski, grandson of survivors, Austria.
- Frank Amahran, grandson of survivor, United States.
- Eve Spangler, granddaughter of Holocaust NON-survivor, United States.
- Gil Medovoy, grandchild of Fela Hornstein who lost her enitre family in Poland during the Nazi genocide, United States.
- Michael Hoffman, grandson of survivors, rest of family killed in Poland during Holocaust, live in El Salvador.
- Sarah Hogarth, granddaughter of a survivor whose entire family was killed at Auschwitz, United States.
- Tibby Brooks, granddaughter, niece, and cousin of victims of Nazis in Ukraine. Lives in United States.
- Dan Berger, grandson of survivor, United States.
- Dani Baurer, granddaughter of Baruch Pollack, survivor of Auschwitz. Lives in United States.
- Talia Baurer, granddaughter of a survivor, United States.
- Evan Cofsky, grandson of survivor, UK.
- Annie Sicherman, granddaughter of survivors, United States.
- Anna Heyman, granddaughter of survivors, UK.
- Maya Ober, granddaughter of survivor and relative of deceased in Teresienstadt and Auschwitz, Tel Aviv.
- Anne Haan, granddaughter of Joseph Slagter, survivor of Auschwitz. Lives in The Netherlands.
- Oliver Ginsberg, grandson of victim, Germany.
- Alexia Zdral, granddaughter of Polish survivors, United States.
- Mitchel Bollag, grandson of Stanislaus Eisner, who was living in Czechoslovakia before being sent to a concentration camp. United States.
- Vivienne Porzsolt, granddaughter of victims of Nazi genocide, Australia.
- Lisa Nessan, granddaughter of survivors, United States.
- Kally Alexandrou, granddaughter of survivors, Australia.
- Laura Ostrow, granddaughter of survivors, United States
- Anette Jacobson, granddaughter of relatives killed, town of Kamen Kashirsk, Poland. Lives in United States.
- Tamar Yaron (Teresa Werner), granddaughter and niece of victims of the Nazi genocide in Poland, Israel.
- Antonio Roman-Alcalá, grandson of survivor, United States.
- Jeremy Luban, grandson of survivor, United States.
- Heather West, granddaughter of survivors and relative of other victims, United States.
- Jeff Ethan Au Green, grandson of survivor who escaped from a Nazi work camp and hid in the Polish-Ukranian forest, United States.
- Johanna Haan, daughter and granddaughter of victims in the Netherlands. Lives in the Netherlands.
- Aron Ben Miriam, son of and nephew of survivors from Auschwitz, Bergen-Belsen, Salzwedel, Lodz ghetto. Lives in United States.
- Noa Shaindlinger, granddaughter of four holocaust survivors, Canada.
- Merilyn Moos, granddaughter, cousin and niece murdered victims, UK.
- Ruth Tenne, granddaughter and relative of those who perished in Warsaw Ghetto, London.
- Craig Berman, grandson of Holocaust survivors, UK.
- Nell Hirschmann-Levy, granddaughter of survivors from Germany. Lives in United States.
- Osha Neumann, grandson of Gertrud Neumann who died in Theresienstadt. Lives in United States.
- Georg Frankl, Grandson of survivor Ernst-Immo Frankl who survived German work camp. Lives in Germany.
- Julian Drix, grandson of two survivors from Poland, including survivor and escapee from liquidated Janowska concentration camp in Lwow, Poland. Lives in United States.
- Katrina Mayer, grandson and relative of victims, UK.
- Avigail Abarbanel, granddaughter of survivors, Scotland.
- Denni Turp, granddaughter of Michael Prooth, survivor, UK.
- Fenya Fischler, granddaughter of survivors, UK.
- Yakira Teitel, granddaughter of German Jewish refugees, great-granddaughter of survivor, United States.
- Sarah, granddaughter of survivor, the Netherlands.
- Susan Koppelman, granddaughter of survivor, United States
- Hana Umeda, granddaughter of survivor, Warsaw.
- Jordan Silverstein, grandson of two survivors, Canada.
- Daniela Petuchowski, granddaughter of survivors, United States.
- Aaron Lerner, grandson of survivors, United States.
- Judith Bernstein, granddaughter of Holocaust victims in Auschwitz, Germany.
- Samantha Wischnia, granddaughter and great niece of survivors from Poland, United States.
- Elizabeth Wischnia, granddaughter and grand niece of three holocaust survivors, great aunt worked for Schindler, United States.
- Daniel Waterman, grandson of survivor, The Netherlands.
- Elana Baurer, granddaughter of survivor, United States.
- Pablo Roman-Alcala, grandson of participant in the kindertransport and survivor, Germany.
- Karine Abdel Malek, grandchild of survivor, Henri Waisman, Morocco.
- Elana Baurer, granddaughter of survivor, United States.
- Lillian Brown, granddaughter of survivor, United States.
- Devin Cahn, grandson of survivors, United States.
- Daniel Lévyne, grandson of a deportee, France.
- Emilie Ferreira, granddaughter of survivors, Switzerland.
- Chaim Neslen, grandchild of many victims and friend of many survivors, UK.
- Ann Jungmann, granddaughter to three victims, UK.
- Ellie Schling, granddaughter of a survivor, UK.
- Danny Katch, grandson of survivors, United States.
- Elisa Levi, granddaughter of three survivors, United States.
- Karen Pomer, granddaughter of member of Dutch resistance and survivor of Bergen Belsen. Now lives in the United States.
- Gilda Mitchell Katz, granddaughter of survivors, uncle and aunt killed In Dombrova, Canada.
- Smadar Carmon, my grandparents and uncle were killed in the camps, Canada.
- Dana Newfield, granddaughter of survivor and relative of many murdered, United States.
- Ilana Guslits, granddaughter of two Polish survivors, Canada.
- Gerald Coles-Kolsky, grandson of victims in Poland and France, United States.
- Lesley Swain, granddaughter and cousin of survivors, UK.
- Myera Waese, granddaughter of survivors of Bergen Belsen, Canada.
- Ronni Seidman, grandchild of survivors. United States.
- Mike Shatzkin, grandchild of survivors, some family members murdered and some who died in the Warsaw Ghetto uprising. United States.
- Nance Shatzkin, grandchild of survivors, some family members murdered and some who died in the Warsaw Ghetto uprising. United States.
- Karen Shatzkin, grandchild of survivors, some family members murdered and some who died in the Warsaw Ghetto uprising. United States.
- Myriam Burger, granddaughter of survivor. United States.
- Andre Burger, grandson of survivor Myriam Cohn, great-grandson of Sylvia Cohn and great-nephew of Esther Lore Cohn, both murdered in Auschwitz, United States.
Great-grandchildren of survivors
- Natalie Rothman, great granddaughter of Holocaust victims in Warsaw. Now lives in Canada.
- Yotam Amit, great-grandson of Polish Jew who fled Poland, United States.
- Daniel Boyarin, great grandson of victims of the Nazi genocide, United States.
- Maria Luban, great-granddaughter of survivors of the Holocaust, United States.
- Mimi Erlich, great-granddaughter of Holocaust victim, United States.
- Olivia Kraus, great-grandaughter of victims, granddaughter and daughter of family that fled Austria and Czechoslovakia. Lives in United States.
- Emily (Chisefsky) Alma, great granddaughter and great grandniece of victims in Bialystok, Poland, United States.
- Inbal Amin, great-granddaughter of a mother and son that escaped and related to plenty that didn’t, United States.
- Matteo Luban, great-granddaughter of survivors, United States.
- Saira Weiner, greatgranddaughter and niece of those murdered in the Holocaust, granddaughter of survivors, UK.
- Andrea Isaak, great-granddaughter of survivor, Canada.
- Alan Lott, great-grandson of a number of relatives lost, United States.
- Sara Wines, great-granddaughter of a survivor and great-great granddaughter of victims, United States.
Other relatives of survivors
- Terri Ginsberg, niece of a survivor of the Nazi genocide, United States.
- Nathan Pollack, relative of Holocaust survivors and victims, United States.
- Marcy Winograd, relatives of victims, United States.
- Rabbi Borukh Goldberg, relative of many victims, United States.
- Martin Davidson, great-nephew of victims who lived in the Netherlands, Spain.
- Miriam Pickens, relative of survivors, United States.
- Dorothy Werner, spouse of survivor, United States.
- Hyman and Hazel Rochman, relatives of Holocaust victims, United States.
- Rich Siegel, cousin of victims who were rounded up and shot in town square of Czestochowa, Poland. Lives in United States.
- Ignacio Israel Cruz-Lara, relative of survivor, Mexico.
- Debra Stuckgold, relative of survivors, United States.
- Joel Kovel, relatives killed at Babi Yar, United States.
- Carol Krauthamer Smith, niece of survivors of the Nazi genocide, United States.
- Chandra Ahuva Hauptman, relatives from grandfather’s family died in Lodz ghetto, one survivor cousin and many deceased from Auschwitz, United States.
- Shelly Weiss, relative of Holocaust victims, United States.
- Carol Sanders, niece and cousin of victims of Holocaust in Poland, United States.
- Sandra Rosen, great-niece and cousin of survivors, United States.
- Raquel Hiller, relative of victims in Poland. Now lives in Mexico.
- Alex Kantrowitz, most of father’s family murdered Nesvizh, Belarus 1941. Lives in United States.
- Michael Steven Smith, many relatives were killed in Hungary. Lives in United States.
- Linda Moore, relative of survivors and victims, United States.
- Juliet VanEenwyk, niece and cousin of Hungarian survivors, United States.
- Anya Achtenberg, grand niece, niece, cousin of victims tortured and murdered in Ukraine. Lives in United States.
- Betsy Wolf-Graves, great niece of uncle who shot himself as he was about to be arrested by Nazis, United States.
- Abecassis Pierre, grand-uncle died in concentration camp, France.
- Robert Rosenthal, great-nephew and cousin of survivors from Poland. Lives in United States.
- Régine Bohar, relative of victims sent to Auschwitz, Canada.
- Denise Rickles, relative of survivors and victims in Poland. Lives in United States.
- Louis Hirsch, relative of victims, United States.
- Concepción Marcos, relative of victim, Spain.
- George Sved, relative of victim, Spain.
- Judith Berlowitz, relative of victims and survivors, United States.
- Rebecca Sturgeon, descendant of Holocaust survivor from Amsterdam. Lives in UK.
- Justin Levy, relative of victims and survivors, Ireland.
- Sam Semoff, relative of survivors and victims, UK.
- Leah Brown Klein, daughter-in-law of survivors Miki and Etu Fixler Klein, United States
- Karen Malpede, spouse of hidden child who then fled Germany. Lives in United States
- Michel Euvrard, husband of survivor, France.
- Walter Ebmeyer, grandnephew of three Auschwitz victims and one survivor now living in Jerusalem, United States.
- Garrett Wright, relative of victims and survivors, United States.
- Lynne Lopez-Salzedo, descendant of three Auschwitz victims, United States.
- Renee Leavy, 86 victims in my mother’s family, United States.
- Steven Kohn, 182 victims in my grandparents’ families, United States.
- Dorah Rosen Shuey, relative of many victims and 4 survivors, United States.
- Carol Lipton, cousin of survivors, United States.
- Catherine Bruckner, descendent of Czech Jewish victims of the holocaust, UK.
- Susan Rae Goldstein, carrying the name of my great-aunt Rose Frankel, from Poland and murdered along with many other family members, Canada.
- Jordan Elgrably, nephew of Marcelle Elgrably, killed in Auschwitz, United States.
- Olivia M Hudis, relative of Auschwitz victims, United States.
- Peter Finkelstein, relative of victims and survivors, Germany.
- Colin Merrin, descendant of Polish and Belarusian Jewish victims, UK.
By Waleed Ahmed
This series about Israeli Apartheid Week Talking About Israeli Apartheid Week has served to provide an in depth understanding of the issues surrounding the Israel-Palestine conflict. Here are seven frequently asked questions about Israel apartheid that aim to guide understanding and debunk propaganda myths about Israeli apartheid.
We hope you enjoyed Talking About Israeli Apartheid Week and encourage you to view the entire contents of this serieshere.
Frequently asked questions about Israeli apartheid
1. But Israel is the only democracy in the Middle East! Arabs even serve in the Israeli cabinet and have rights to vote just like Jews! How's this apartheid?
America was a democracy while it practiced slavery; and practiced racial segregation long after that. Just because Israel has a quasi-democracy within its recognized borders doesn't mean it can't implement apartheid at the same time.
In addition, the apartheid policies are primarily implemented by Israel in the Palestinian territories. None of the rights and privileges you mention are extended to Palestinians under occupation. As indicated earlier, Israel quite blatantly maintains a racist regime in the occupied territories. Please refer to part II and part III of the series.
2.. In South Africa there were 'white-only' beaches and numerous other facilities reserved for whites only. You don't see any such signage or rules in the case of Israeli apartheid. Your analogy is flawed.
It is important to recognize that apartheid is not a mere analogy. It is defined specifically as a crime against humanity under international law. Some dismiss the charge of Israeli apartheid simply because of the differences with South African apartheid. It is important to recognize that both regimes had their unique features and both constitute apartheid independent of each other.
In addition, in many cases Israeli apartheid could be considered far worse. While South Africa had 'white-only' beaches, Israel has allocated entire colonies for exclusive Jewish use in Palestine. Schools, parks, roads and hospitals are all 'Jewish-only.' There might not be signage to say this in large font, but only Jews are allowed to live and reside in these areas -- despite them being in occupied Palestinian land.
3. Palestinians live under such deplorable conditions because they are ruled by the Palestinian Authority and Hamas. The PA is corrupt and fails to provide its people a decent standard of living. Israel has nothing to do with the OPT.
Palestinians aren't ruled by the PA. They are under Israeli military occupation since in 1967. Every aspect of their life is subject to rules set by the Israeli military. Since 1993, Israel has transferred some of the administrative responsibilities to the PA. However, this is should not be confused for autonomous rule. Even officials of the PA can be arrested by Israel and need Israel approval before making many decisions. The PA basically gives the illusion of a Palestinian self-government while all the power is still in Israeli hands.
The West Bank is divided into three categories of administration:
Area A (18 per cent of West Bank) -- Military and Administrative control is under Palestinian control. This area includes the main Palestinians cities. The Israeli army still accesses this area to conduct raids and other operations.
Area B (22 per cent of West Bank) -- Administrative responsibilities under Palestinian Control, Military control is under Israel.
Area C (60 per cent of West Bank) -- Both Administration and Military is under Israeli control.
Thus, it should be clear that West Bank is far from being an autonomous state. It is still has no sense of self-determination and is at the complete disposal of Israel. Hence, Israel is free to build Jewish colonies, apartheid roads, control water supply etc.
4. Why do you keep calling Gaza as Occupied Territory? Israel evacuated the strip in 2007 and it's under Hamas control. Israel bears no responsibility.
Gaza is still considered occupied territory under international law. Israel has not granted it independence; it has simply relocated its military to the borders and has implemented a brutal siege. Israel has blocked land, air and water access to Gaza -- nothing can go in or out. It's the world's largest open air prison. Israel regularly conducts raids in the strip and shoots innocent civilians who dare to go close to the border regions. See more on the Israeli blockade to learn how Israel still controls every aspect of Gazans and has made the strip inhospitable.
5. Palestinians needs to recognize Israel's right to exist before the peace process can move forward.
Palestinians recognized Israel in 1993 when they signed the Oslo Accords with Israel. How much more recognition does Israel want? Is signing a treaty not sufficient? This superficial demand is just an excuse to block the peace process and prolong the occupation.
6. Gaza is ruled by Hamas which has been declared to be a terrorist organization. It is always launching rockets at Israel and Israel thus has the right to defend itself.
Nelson Mandela's ANC was also declared to be a terrorist organization by the West for waging an armed struggle against apartheid. In fact, Mandela was only taken off the terrorist list recently. Declaring someone to be a terrorist doesn't mean they are necessarily one; these are just propaganda tactics employed to skew the reality.
Hamas was elected democratically by Gazans and it has been under a severe siege since; Hamas' actions are defensive as it is trying to fight foreign occupation. Hamas is to be condemned when it targets civilians; however, Israel also needs to be condemned for the prolonged occupation which gives rise to violent resistance in the first place. The vast majority of Palestinians support non-violent resistance; as best indicated by the hunger strikes by hundreds of innocent Palestinians locked up in Israeli jails.
7. If Israel gives Palestinians freedom, they will take over Israel, outnumber Jews and eliminate the Jewish State!
These types of nonsense arguments were used by racist Americans when they tried banning slavery; 'If we give blacks freedom, they will buy guns and shoot us!' Making such statements is just that: racist and nonsense.
Waleed Ahmed is a freelance writer based out of Toronto. He enjoys writing about current affairs, human rights and religion.
Photo: flickr/Wall in Palestine
Check out the entire Talking About Israeli Apartheid Series.
July 24, 2014
As the people of Gaza face the Israeli government's latest barbaric assault, activists around the world are seeking ways to show solidarity with the Palestinians and voice their outrage. Jews for Palestinian Right of Return is circulating this petition to send a message.
San Francisco marchers show their solidarity with Palestinians in Gaza (Jeremy Tully | SW)
ON JULY 12, 2014, Gaza civil society issued an urgent appeal for solidarity, asking: "How many of our lives are dispensable enough until the world takes action? How much of our blood is sufficient?"
As Jews of conscience, we answer by unequivocally condemning Israel's ongoing massacre in Gaza, whose victims include hundreds of civilians, children, entire families, the elderly and the disabled. This latest toll adds to the thousands Israel has killed and maimed since its supposed withdrawal from the Gaza Strip in 2005.
In response to this crisis, we urgently reaffirm our support for a ban on all military and other aid to Israel.
In 1967, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. opposed the Vietnam War with his famous declaration: "For the sake of the hundreds of thousands trembling under our violence, I cannot be silent."
Today, we cannot be silent as the "Jewish state"--armed to the teeth by the U.S. and its allies--wages yet another brutal war on the Palestinian people. Apartheid Israel does not speak for us, and we stand with Gaza as we stand with all of Palestine.
In the face of incessant pro-Israel propaganda, we heed Malcolm X's warning: "If you're not careful, the newspapers will have you hating the people who are being oppressed, and loving the people who are doing the oppressing."
For Israel's relentless war on Gaza is no more an act of "self-defense" than such infamous massacres as Wounded Knee (1890), Guernica (1937), the Warsaw Ghetto (1942), Deir Yassin (1948), My Lai (1968), Soweto (1976), Sabra and Shatila (1982) or Lebanon (2006).
Rather, it is but the latest chapter in more than a century of Zionist colonialism, dispossession, ethnic cleaning, racism and genocide--including Israel's very establishment through the uprooting and displacement of over 750,000 Palestinians during the 1947-1948 Nakba. Indeed, 80 percent of the 1.8 million people sealed into Gaza are refugees.
Like any colonial regime, Israel uses resistance to such policies as an excuse to terrorize and collectively punish the indigenous population for its very existence. But scattered rockets, fired from Gaza into land stolen from Palestinians in the first place, are merely a response to this systemic injustice.
To confront the root cause of this violence, we call for the complete dismantling of Israel's apartheid regime, throughout historic Palestine--from the River to the Sea. With that in mind, we embrace the 2005 Palestinian call for Boycott, Divestment and Sanctions (BDS) campaign, which demands:
-- An end to Israeli military occupation of the 1967 territories
-- Full equality for Palestinian citizens of Israel
-- Right of return for Palestinian refugees, as affirmed by UN resolution 194
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
(list in formation; organizations, schools and other affiliations shown for identification only; * indicates co-founder of Jews for Palestinian Right of Return)
Avigail Abarbanel, Psychotherapist; editor, Beyond Tribal Loyalties: Personal Stories of Jewish Peace Activists(2012, Cambridge Scholars), Inverness, Scotland
Noa Abend, Boycott From Within
Stephen Aberle, Independent Jewish Voices; Vancouver, BC
Lisa Albrecht, Ph.D. Social Justice Program, University of Minnesota
Anya Achtenberg, novelist and poet; teacher; activist; International Jewish Anti-Zionist Network
Mike Alewitz, Associate Professor, Central CT State Unversity; Artistic Director, Labor Art & Mural Project
Zalman Amit, Distinguished Professor Emeritus; Author, Israeli Rejectionism
Anthony Arnove, International Socialist Organization
Gabriel Ash, International Jewish Anti-Zionist Network, Switzerland
Ted Auerbach, Brooklyn for Peace
Anna Baltzer, author and organizer
Ronnie Barkan, Co-founder, Boycott from Within, Tel-Aviv
Judith Bello, Administrative Committee, United National Antiwar Coalition
Lawrence Boxall, Independent Jewish Voices, Canada; Vancouver Ecosocialist Group
Linda Benedikt, writer Munich, Germany
Nora Barrows-Friedman, journalist; Oakland
Prof. Jonathan Beller, Humanities and Media Studies Graduate Program in Media Studies, Pratt Institute, Brooklyn
Medea Benjamin, co-founder, CODEPINK
Rica Bird, Joint Founder, Merseyside Jews for Peace and Justice
Audrey Bomse, Co-chair, National Lawyers Guild Palestine Subcommittee
Prof. Daniel Boyarin, Taubman Professor of Talmudic Culture, UC Berkeley
Lenni Brenner, Author, Zionism in the Age of the Dictators
Elizabeth Block, Independent Jewish Voices, Toronto ON
Max Blumenthal, Author, Goliath: Life and Loathing in Greater Israel; and Senior Writer for Alternet.org
Mary P. Buchwald, Jewish Voice for Peace-New York
Monique Buckner, BDS South Africa
Maia Brown, Health and Human Rights Project-Seattle & Stop Veolia Seattle
Estee Chandler, Jewish Voice for Peace, Los Angeles
Rick Chertoff, L.A. Jews for Peace
Prof. Marjorie Cohn, Thomas Jefferson School of Law; past president, National Lawyers Guild
Ally Cohen, Ramallah, Palestine; International Solidarity Movement media coordinator
Ruben Rosenberg Colorni, Youth for Palestine, Netherlands
Mike Cushman, Convenor, Jews for Boycotting Israeli Goods (UK)
Margaretta D'arcy, Irish actress, writer, playwright, and peace activist
Natalie Zemon Davis, Historian
Warren Davis, labor and political activist, Philadelphia, PA
Eron Davidson, filmmaker
Judith Deutsch, Independent Jewish Voices Canada; Science for Peace
Roger Dittmann, Professor of Physics, Emeritus California State University, Fullerton; President, Scholars and Scientists without Borders Executive Council, World Federation of Scientific Workers
Gordon Doctorow, Ed.D., Canada
Mark Elf, Jews Sans Frontieres, London, UK
Hedy Epstein, Nazi Holocaust survivor and human rights activist; St. Louis, MO
Marla Erlien, New York NY
Shelley Ettinger, writer/activist, New York, NY
Inge Etzbach, Human Rights Activist, Café Palestina NY
Richard Falk, Professor of International Law, Emeritus, Princeton University; Former UN Special Rapporteur on Occupied Palestine, 2008-2014
Malkah B. Feldman, Jewish Voice for Peace and recent delegate to Palestine with American Jews for a Just Peace
Deborah Fink, Co-Founder, Jews for Boycotting Israeli Goods UK
Joel Finkel, Jewish Voice for Peace-Chicago
Sylvia Finzi, JfjfP; Jüdische Stimme für gerechten Frieden in Nahost, EJJP (Germany)
Maxine Fookson, Pediatric Nurse Practitioner; Jewish Voice for Peace, Portland OR
Richard Forer, Author, Breakthrough: Transforming Fear Into Compassion--A New Perspective on the Israel-Palestine
Sid Frankel, Associate Professor, University of Manitoba
Prof. Cynthia Franklin, Co-Editor, Biography: An Interdisciplinary Quarterly, University of Hawai'i
Racheli Gai, Jewish Voice for Peace
Herb Gamberg, Independent Jewish Voices, Canada
Ruth Gamberg, Independent Jewish Voices, Canada
Lee Gargagliano, International Jewish Anti-Zionist Network
Cheryl Gaster, social justice activist and human right lawyer, Toronto ON
Alisa Gayle-Deutsch, American/Canadian Musician and Anti-Israeli Apartheid Activist
Jack Gegenberg, Professor of Mathematics, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton NB
Prof. Terri Ginsberg, film and media scholar, New York
David Glick, psychotherapist; Jewish Voice for Peace
Sherna Berger Gluck, Emerita Professor, CSULB; Israel Divestment Campaign
Neta Golan, Ramallah, Palestine; Jews Against Genocide; Co-founder, International Solidarity Movement
Tsilli Goldenberg, teacher, Jerusalem, Israel
Steve Goldfield, Ph.D.
Sue Goldstein, International Jewish Anti-Zionist Network, Canada
Marty Goodman, former Executive Board member, Transport Workers Union Local 100; Socialist Action
Rabbi Lynn Gottlieb, Freeman Fellow, Fellowship of Reconciliation
Hector Grad, International Jewish Anti-Zionist Network, Spain
Prof. Jesse Greener, University of Laval
Cathy Gulkin, Filmmaker, Toronto ON
Ira Grupper, Bellarmine University, Louisville, KY
Jeff Halper, Israeli Committee Against House Demolitions (ICAHD)
Larry Haiven, Independent Jewish Voices Canada, Halifax
Evelyn Hecht-Galinski, publisher, Germany
Stanley Heller, The Struggle Video News TSVN
Shir Hever, Jewish Voice for Just Peace, Germany
Deborah Hrbek, media and civil rights lawyer, NLG-NYC
Dr. Tikva Honig-Parnass, Jews for Palestinian Right of Return
Adam Horowitz, Co-Editor, Mondoweiss
Gilad Isaacs, Economist, Wits University.
Selma James, International Jewish Anti-Zionist Network
Jake Javanshir, Independent Jewish Voices, Toronto
Riva Joffe, Jews Against Zionism
Val Jonas, attorney, Miami Beach
Sima Kahn, MD; President of the board, Kadima Reconstructionist Community
Yael Kahn, Israeli anti-apartheid activist
Michael Kalmanovitz, International Jewish Anti-Zionist Network (UK)
Dan Kaplan, AFT Local 1493
Susan Kaplan, J.D. National Lawyers Guild
Danny Katch, activist and author
Bruce Katz, President, Palestinian and Jewish Unity (PAJU), Montreal, Canada
Lynn Kessler, Ph.D., MPH, psychologist/social justice activist
Janet Klecker, Sonomans for Justice & Peace for Palestine, Sonoma CA
Prof. David Klein, California State University, Northridge; USACBI
Emma Klein, Jewish Voice for Peace, Seattle WA
Sara Kershnar, International Jewish Anti-Zionist Network
Harry Kopyto, Legal activist, Toronto ON
Richard Koritz, veteran postal trade unionist and former member of North Carolina Human Relations Commission
Yael Korin, PhD., Scientist at UCLA; Campaign to End Israel Apartheid, Southern California
Dennis Kortheuer, CSULB, Israel Divestment Campaign
Steve Kowit, Professor Emeritus, Jewish Voice for Peace
Toby Kramer, International Jewish Anti-Zionist Network
Jason Kunin, Independent Jewish Voices Canada
Dr. David Landy, Trinity College, Dublin
Jean Léger, Coalition pour la Justice et la Paix en Palestine, membre de la Coalition BDS Québec et de Palestiniens et Juifs Unis
Lynda Lemberg, Educators for Peace and Justice, Independent Jewish Voices, Toronto ON
David Letwin,* activist and teacher, Al-Awda NY
Michael Letwin,* former President, Association of Legal Aid Attorneys/UAW Local 2325; USACBI; Al-Awda NY
Les Levidow, Jews for Boycotting Israeli Goods (J-BIG), UK
Corey Levine, Human Rights Activist, Writer; National Steering Committee, Independent Jewish Voices Canada
Joseph Levine, Professor of Philosophy, University of Massachusetts Amherst
Lesley Levy, Independent Jewish Voices, Montreal
Mich Levy, teacher, Oakland CA
Abby Lippman, Professor Emerita; activist; Montreal
Brooke Lober, PhD candidate, University of Arizona, Gender and Women's Studies Department
Antony Loewenstein, journalist, author and Guardian columnist
Jennifer Loewenstein, Professor of Middle Eastern Studies, University of Wisconsin, Madison
Alex Lubin, Professor of American Studies, University of New Mexico
Andrew Lugg, Professor Emeritus, University of Ottawa, Canada
David Makofsky, Jewish Voice for Peace, Research Anthropologist
Harriet Malinowitz, Professor of English, Long Island University, Brooklyn
Mike Marqusee, Author, If I Am Not for Myself: Journey of an Anti-Zionist Jew
Miriam Marton, JD
Dr. Richard Matthews, independent scholar, London ON
Daniel L. Meyers, Former President National Lawyers Guild-NYC
Linda Milazzo, Writer/Activist/Educator, Los Angeles
Eva Steiner Moseley, Holocaust refugee, Massachusetts Peace Action board member and Palestine/Israel Working Group
Dr. Dorothy Naor, retired teacher, Herzliah, Israel
Marcy Newman, independent scholar; Author; The Politics of Teaching Palestine to Americans
Alex Nissen, Women in Black
Dr. Judith Norman, San Antonio, TX
Henry Norr, retired journalist, Berkeley CA
Michael Novick, Anti-Racist Action-Los Angeles/People Against Racist Terror
Prof. Bertell Ollman, NYU
Karin Pally, Santa Monica, CA
Prof. Ilan Pappé, Israeli historian and socialist activist
Karen Platt, Jewish Voice for Peace, Albany CA
Dr. Susan Pashkoff, Jews Against Zionism, London UK
Miko Peled, writer, activist; Author, The General's Son: Journey of an Israeli in Palestine
Prof. Gabriel Piterberg, UCLA
Mitch Podolak, Founder, Winnipeg Folk Festival and Vancouver Folk Music Festival
Karen Pomer,* granddaughter of Henri B. van Leeuwen, Dutch anti-Zionist leader and Bergen-Belsen survivor
Lenny Potash, Los Angeles CA
Fabienne Presentey, Independent Jewish Voices, Montréal
Diana Ralph, Independent Jewish Voices Canada
Roland Rance, Jews Against Zionism, London
Karen Ranucci, Independent Journalist, Democracy Now!
Ana Ratner, Artist, Puppeteer, Activist
Michael Ratner, President Emeritus, Center for Constitutional Rights
Prof. Dr. Fanny-Michaela Reisin, Jewish Voice Germany
Diana M.A. Relke, Professor Emerita, University of Saskatchewan
Prof. Bruce Robbins, Columbia University
Stewart M. Robinson, retired Prof of Mathematics
Professor Lisa Rofel, University of California, Santa Cruz
Mimi Rosenberg, Producer & Host, Building Bridges and Wednesday Edition, WBAI 99.5 FM; Association of Legal Aid Attorneys/UAW Local 2325
Lillian Rosengarten, Author, From the Shadows of Nazi Germany to the Jewish Boat to Gaza
Prof. Jonathan Rosenhead, British Committee for the Universities of Palestine (BRICUP)
Yehoahua Rosin, Israel
Ilana Rossoff, International Jewish Anti-Zionist Network
Martha Roth, Independent Jewish Voices; Vancouver BC
Marty Roth, Emeritus professor of English, University of Minnesota
Ruben Roth, Assistant Professor, Labour Studies, Laurentian University; Independent Jewish Voices Canada
Emma Rubin, International Jewish Anti-Zionist Network
Cheryl A. Rubenberg, Middle East Scholar; Editor, Encyclopedia of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict; Author, The Palestinians in Search of a Just Peace
Josh Ruebner, Author, Shattered Hopes: Obama's Failure to Broker Israeli-Palestinian Peace
Mark Rudd, retired teacher, Albuquerque NM
Ben Saifer, Independent Jewish Voices Canada
Evalyn Segal, Rossmoor Senior Community
Sylvia Schwarz, International Jewish Anti-Zionist Network
Yossi Schwartz, Internationalist Socialist League; Haifa
Carole Seligman, co-editor, Socialist Viewpoint magazine
Yom Shamash, Independent Jewish Voices, Vancouver, Canada
Tali Shapiro, Boycott from Within; Israel
Karen Shenfeld, Poet, Toronto ON
Sid Shniad, National Steering Committee, Independent Jewish Voices Canada
William Shookhoff, Independent Jewish Voices, Toronto ON
Melinda Smith, Jewish Voice for Peace, Albuquerque NM
Kobi Snitz, Tel Aviv
Marsha Steinberg, BDS-LA for Justice in Palestine, Los Angeles
Lotta Strandberg, Visiting Scholar, NYU
Carol Stone, Independent Jewish Voices, Vancouver BC
Miriam (Cherkes-Julkowski) Swenson, Ph.D.
Matthew Taylor, author
Laura Tillem, Peace and Social Justice Center of South Central Kansas
Peter Trainor, Independent Jewish Voices, Toronto
Rebecca Tumposky, International Jewish Anti-Zionist Network
Darlene Wallach, Justice for Palestinians, San Jose CA
Dr. Abraham Weizfeld, JPLO
Bonnie Weinstein, Co-Editor of Socialist Viewpoint magazine; Publisher, Bay Area United Against War Newsletter
Sam Weinstein, International Jewish Anti-Zionist Network-Labor; former President, UWUA Local 132
Judith Weisman, Independent Jewish Voices; Not in Our Name (NION); Toronto ON
Paul Werner, PhD, DSFS Editor, WOID, a journal of visual language
Noga Wizansky, Ph.D., artist, instructor, and researcher; Administrator, Institute of European Studies, UC Berkeley
Marcy Winograd, public school teacher, former congressional peace candidate
Bekah Wolf, UC Hastings College of Law Student; Co-founder, Palestine Solidarity Project
Sherry Wolf, International Socialist Organization
Dave Zirin, Author, Game Over: How Politics Have Turned the Sports World Upside Down